Click the link below to practice your knowledge of prefixes, roots, and suffixes. Good luck!
Some key things to know about the morphemes (roots and affixes):
Practice: Identify the correct version of the prefix based on the root word.
Example: in + port= import
1. con + pound
2. in + legitimate
3. ad + range
4. ad + certain
5. con + lateral
6. con + rection
7. syn + labus
8. dis + fer
9. in + regular
10. ad + leviate
Practice: Identify the correct version of the suffix based on the root word.
Example: sum + ary= summary
1. cab + age
2. dirty + er
3. mud + y
4. Rome + an
5. affiliate + ation
6. leaf + es
7. aspire + ate
8. beg + ar
9. seize + ure
10. grief + ous
Answers to Previous Practice Problems
4. Roman (take away the e)
5. affiliation (take away the e)
7. aspirate (take away the e)
9. seizure (take away the e)
The following list below are 5 additional root words to study. I will be assessing you on these and those from the previous lesson. Be prepared to be tested weekly on 5-10 root words.
duc, duct: to lead or draw--> introduction, reduce
clud, clus: to shut --> exclude
grad, gress: to step, go --> gradual, progress
pend, pens: to hang, weigh, or pay--> suspend
voc, vok: to voice, call --> invoke, vocation
By now, we should have a good understanding of phonemes- the smallest unit of sound in a word that does not carry a meaning. We briefly covered graphemes and morphemes, but I will go more in depth with this lesson.
A grapheme is the smallest unit used in a written system of any given language. A grapheme represents phonemes or sounds.
(Insert video: for example, the letter B represents the /b/ sound. The letter C represents the /k/ and the /s/ sound. The letter S can represent the /s/ and the /z/ sound.)
Types of Graphemes
Linguists classify graphemes into the following categories (the chart below)
In addition are:
A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning in language. Morphemes are identified by their form or shape (hence morph::shape). That is, when you see bio in a word, you know that the meaning has something to do with life or living organism. Biology, biography, antibiotics, biopsy, symbiosis, biosocial, etc... A morpheme itself is not a word, in that it may or may not stand alone. Morphology is the identification, analysis and description of the structure of a given language's morphemes and other linguistic units, such as root words, affixes, parts of speech, intonations and stresses, or implied context.
A morpheme can be free or bound. Free morphemes stand on their own as a word. We add prefixes or suffixes (derivational affixes) to indicate pa
Putting It All Together
Studying morphemes is a crucial, overlooked aspect of learning vocabulary, which is fundamental to reading comprehension. When readers encounter unknown words, use knowledge of morphemes as well as context clues (using the surrounding text) to provide definitions and meaning.
For an example, let's look at the incredible
"in" means _______
"cred" means _______
"ible" means _______
"in" means not
"cred" means believe
"ible" means able to
Thus, incredible refers to that which is not able to be believed or trusted.
Another example: nominate
nomin (name) + ate (verb- to do)
Thus, nominate refers to an action; it means to name a person or formally enter as a candidate for election or for an honor or award.
Last example: construct
prefix + root
con + struct
together + build/heap
Thus, construct literally is to "build/heap together".
A SPECIAL NOTE
When analyzing morphemes to define words, you must be cognizant of the principle of denotation and connotation. The denotation of a word is the literal meaning of a word, while the connotation is the shaded meaning (definitions that the word acquired over time). Morphemes do not always give clues to connotative meanings. In fact, you may find that the morphemes have nothing to do with the present-day understanding of a word. A word such as consider offers a great example.
The root of consider is sider which means "star". However, the dictionary and most people's understanding of "consider" is to ponder or think about something. Etymology also teaches us how to analyze such a change. Consider literally refers to the stars; originally, the word made reference to farmers that used the stars to determine when it was proper to reap and sow. We see this concept still via farmer's almanac. In a future lesson, you will learn the method of analyzing denotations, connotations, and changes over time.
Practice and Assessments
Below is one practice activity; this is to review the information from Lesson 2 and help you prepare for Lesson 3. There will be another quiz after Lesson 3, covering information from Lessons 2 and 3.
Lesson 2 Practice- COMING SOON! EXPERIENCING TECHNICAL DIFFICULTIES WITH QUIZ WEBSITE.
membean.com/treelist (gives a list of roots and affixes)
etymonline.com (gives etymologies and morphemes of words)
ahdictionary.com (online dictionary)
wordinfo.info (contains roots, affixes, and defintion)